10J/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The Industrial Revolution increased the productivity of each worker, but it also increased child labor and unhealthy working conditions, and it gradually destroyed the craft tradition. The economic imbalances of the Industrial Revolution led to a growing conflict between factory owners and workers and contributed to the main political ideologies of the 20th century.
10J/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Today, changes in technology continue to affect patterns of work and bring with them economic and social consequences.
10J/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): In the 1800s, new machinery and steam engines to drive them made it possible to manufacture goods in factories, using fuels as a source of energy. In the factory system, workers, materials, and energy could be brought together efficiently.
11A/E2 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Something may not work well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected.
11A/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Understanding how things work and designing solutions to problems of almost any kind can be facilitated by systems analysis. In defining a system, it is important to specify its boundaries and subsystems, indicate its relation to other systems, and identify what its input and output are expected to be.
11A/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms.
11A/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Even in some very simple systems, it may not always be possible to predict accurately the result of changing some part or connection.
11A/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Systems may be so closely related that there is no way to draw boundaries that separate all parts of one from all parts of the other.
11A/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.
11A/M3 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Any system is usually connected to other systems, both internally and externally. Thus a system may be thought of as containing subsystems and as being a sub-system of a larger system.
11A/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Systems are defined by placing boundaries around collections of interrelated things to make them easier to study. Regardless of where the boundaries are placed, a system still interacts with its surrounding environment. Therefore, when studying a system, it is important to keep track of what enters or leaves the system.
11C/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Cyclic change is commonly found when there are feedback effects in a system—as, for example, when a change in any direction gives rise to forces or influences that oppose the change.
11C/H7a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Most systems above the molecular level involve so many parts that it is not practical to determine the existing conditions, and thus the precise behavior of every part of the system cannot be predicted.
11C/H7b ( Grades: 9-12 ): The precise future of a system is not completely determined by its present state and circumstances but also depends on the fundamentally uncertain outcomes of events on the atomic scale.
11C/M11 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The amount of something in a system may stay the same because nothing is entering or leaving the system or because something is being added to the system at the same rate as it is leaving the system.
11D/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): As the number of parts in a system grows in size, the number of possible internal interactions increases much more rapidly, roughly with the square of the number of parts.
12C/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things.
12C/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Troubleshoot common mechanical and electrical systems, check for possible causes of malfunction, and decide on that basis whether to fix it themselves or get help from an expert.
12C/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Analyze simple mechanical devices and describe what the various parts are for; estimate what the effect of making a change in one part of a device would have on the device as a whole.
12E/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Compare consumer products and consider reasonable personal trade-offs among them on the basis of features, performance, durability, and cost.
1B/M2c ( Grades: 6-8 ): Collaboration among investigators can often lead to research designs that are able to deal with situations where it is not possible to control all of the variables.
1C/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Funding influences the direction of science by virtue of the decisions that are made on which research to support. Research funding comes from various federal government agencies, industry, and private foundations.
2B/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Mathematical modeling aids in technological design by simulating how a proposed system might behave.
3A/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances.
3A/H3a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Technology usually affects society more directly than science does because technology solves practical problems and serves human needs (and also creates new problems and needs).
3A/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Engineers use knowledge of science and technology, together with strategies of design, to solve practical problems. Scientific knowledge provides a means of estimating what the behavior of things will be even before they are made. Moreover, science often suggests new kinds of behavior that had not even been imagined before, and so leads to new technologies.
3B/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): There is no perfect design. Designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use, for example) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance). Usually some features must be sacrificed to get others.
3B/E2 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated.
3B/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): In designing a device or process, thought should be given to how it will be manufactured, operated, maintained, replaced, and disposed of and who will sell, operate, and take care of it. The costs associated with these functions may introduce yet more constraints on the design.
3B/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Complex systems have layers of controls. Some controls operate particular parts of the system and some control other controls. Even fully automatic systems require human control at some point.
3B/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The more parts and connections a system has, the more ways it can go wrong. Complex systems usually have components to detect, back up, bypass, or compensate for minor failures.
3B/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): To reduce the chance of system failure, performance testing is often conducted using small-scale models, computer simulations, analogous systems, or just the parts of the system thought to be least reliable.
3B/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Design usually requires taking into account not only physical and biological constraints, but also economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic ones.
3B/M2a ( Grades: 6-8 ): All technologies have effects other than those intended by the design, some of which may have been predictable and some not.
3B/M4a ( Grades: 6-8 ): Systems fail because they have faulty or poorly matched parts, are used in ways that exceed what was intended by the design, or were poorly designed to begin with.
3B/M4b ( Grades: 6-8 ): The most common ways to prevent failure are pretesting of parts and procedures, overdesign, and redundancy.
3C/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Factors such as cost, safety, appearance, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails must be considered in technological design.
3C/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Social and economic forces strongly influence which technologies will be developed and used. Which will prevail is affected by many factors, such as personal values, consumer acceptance, patent laws, the availability of risk capital, the federal budget, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, and tax incentives.
3C/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): In deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or curtail existing ones, some key questions arise concerning possible alternatives, who benefits and who suffers, financial and social costs, possible risks, resources used (human, material, or energy), and waste disposal.
3C/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Technology is largely responsible for the great revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation and medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and communications that have radically changed how people live and work.
3C/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Societies influence what aspects of technology are developed and how these are used. People control technology (as well as science) and are responsible for its effects.
3C/M8 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Scientific laws, engineering principles, properties of materials, and construction techniques must be taken into account in designing engineering solutions to problems.
4B/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The earth has many natural resources of great importance to human life. Some are readily renewable, some are renewable only at great cost, and some are not renewable at all.
4B/M10ab ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some material resources are very rare and some exist in great quantities. The ability to obtain and process resources depends on where they are located and the form they are in. As resources are depleted, they may become more difficult to obtain.
4B/M11a ( Grades: 6-8 ): The wasteful or unnecessary use of natural resources can limit their availability for other purposes. Restoring depleted soil, forests, or fishing grounds can be difficult and costly.
4D/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Heating and cooling can cause changes in the properties of materials, but not all materials respond the same way to being heated and cooled.
4D/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): When a new material is made by combining two or more materials, it has properties that are different from the original materials.
7E/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): In a free-market economic system, it is assumed that free competition produces the best allocation of resources, the greatest productivity, and the lowest costs. Decisions are made naturally as consumers and businesses interact in the marketplace. Free-market enterprises are initiated by individuals or groups of individuals who invest and risk their own resources, or resources they borrow, in order to earn profits on that invested capital. The anticipation of profit motivates individual initiative, innovation, and hard work in a free-market economy. Problems may arise if one business achieves a monopoly in the delivery of a particular product or service, so that the motivation to deliver that product or service efficiently is no longer present. And if all decisions are determined by an unregulated market system, some individuals may become extremely rich and others so poor that they can barely afford even the basic necessities such as food and shelter.
7E/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): In almost all societies, governments run some industries for the benefit of the society as a whole. The advantage of this approach compared to the free-market approach is that goods and services that the society wants can be made available to citizens even if it is not profitable for private industry to offer them. The disadvantage is that decisions must be made by government officials, often with input from the public, on the basis of factors that are much more complex than profit alone. In addition, there may be less incentive to work as efficiently when the profit motive is absent and the system does not respond as quickly to short-term variations in supply and demand that the free-market system allows.
7E/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Governments can use a variety of strategies to keep a free-market system functioning efficiently and to protect individuals and the society as a whole from the negative effects of free-market behavior. Interventions that protect individuals include placing restrictions on unfair hiring, requiring private industries to offer a minimum wage and make health insurance available to their workers, and providing various forms of welfare support to those who cannot pay for basic services themselves. Interventions that protect society at large include imposing tax rates that increase with wealth and placing restrictions on environmental pollution, unfair advertising, and the sale of unsafe products. Governments maintain competition among industries in a free-market system by restricting the establishment of monopolies and by providing support to certain critical industries to maintain their ability to compete.
7E/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Government provides some goods and services through its own agencies and some through contracts with private individuals or businesses. To pay for the goods and services, government must obtain money by taxing people or by borrowing the money.
7E/M4a ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some industries are controlled by government agencies that decide which goods or services to provide and how to distribute them based on various political considerations.
7E/M4b ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some industries are privately owned and controlled by many different individuals or groups of individuals that decide which goods or services to provide based on what they believe will personally benefit them the most.
7E/M4c ( Grades: 6-8 ): Almost all societies have some industries that are privately owned and some that are run by government agencies.
7E/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The goods and services that people want are supplied by individuals or by groups of individuals.
7E/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The political system of a nation is closely intertwined with its economic system, refereeing the economic activity of individuals and groups at every level.
7G/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): International trade is often complicated by political motivations taking priority over economic ones.
7G/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The growing worldwide interdependence of social, economic, and ecological systems means that changes in one place in the world may have effects in any other place.
7G/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Trade between nations occurs when natural resources or the skill to make something are unevenly distributed or when the costs of production are very different in different countries. A nation has a trade opportunity whenever it can create more of a product or service, or a better quality product or service, or a less expensive product or service than can another nation.
7G/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The economic well-being of a country may be enhanced by improving the skill and motivation of its workforce, by developing equipment or practices that are more efficient and produce higher quality products and services, and by engaging in trade with other nations.
7G/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The global environment is affected by national and international policies and practices relating to energy use, waste disposal, ecological management, manufacturing, and population.
8B/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Naturally occurring materials such as wood, clay, cotton, and animal skins may be processed to change their properties.
8B/E2 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Humans have produced a wide variety of materials, such as steel, plastic, and nylon, that do not appear in nature.
8B/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Although many things are still made by hand in some parts of the world, almost everything in the most technologically developed countries is now produced using machines that are automated. By using machinery, the time required to make a product and its cost can be greatly reduced.
8B/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Manufacturing processes have been changed by improved tools and techniques based on more thorough scientific understanding, increases in the forces that can be applied and the temperatures that can be reached, and the availability of electronic controls that make operations occur more rapidly and consistently.
8B/H7 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The development of new materials and the increased use of existing materials by a growing human population have led to the removal of resources from the environment much more rapidly than they can be replaced by natural processes. Disposal of waste materials has also become a problem. Solving these problems requires systematic efforts involving both social and technological innovations.
8B/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Manufacturing usually involves a series of steps, such as designing a product, obtaining and preparing raw materials, processing the materials mechanically or chemically, and assembling the product. All steps may occur at a single location or may occur at different locations.
8B/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Automation, including the use of robots, has changed the nature of work in most fields, including manufacturing. As a result, the demand for workers with some knowledge and skills has decreased while the demand for workers with other knowledge and skills has increased. Furthermore, as the pace of innovation has increased, workers have needed to learn new skills throughout their careers.
8B/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Efforts to find replacements for existing materials are driven by an interest in finding materials that are cheaper to obtain or produce or that have more desirable properties.
8B/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some materials, such as plastics, are synthesized in chemical reactions that link atoms together in long chains. Plastics can be designed to have a variety of different properties for a variety of uses.
8B/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Machines can be used to manufacture parts that are nearly identical. The use of these interchangeable parts allows for more efficient assembly as time is not needed to customize the fit of different parts.
8B/P1 ( Grades: K-2 ): Some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing. Materials that are better in some ways, such as stronger or cheaper, may be worse in other ways, such as heavier or harder to cut.
8C/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Industrialization brings an increased demand for and use of energy. Such usage contributes to having many more goods and services in the industrially developing nations but also leads to more rapid depletion of the earth's energy resources and to environmental risks associated with some energy resources.
8C/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The useful energy output of a device—that is, what energy is available for further change—is always less than the energy input, with the difference usually appearing as thermal energy. One goal in the design of such devices is to make them as efficient as possible—that is, to maximize the useful output for a given input.
8C/M10 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some resources are not renewable or renew very slowly. Fuels already accumulated in the earth, for instance, will become more difficult to obtain as the most readily available resources run out. How long the resources will last, however, is difficult to predict. The ultimate limit may be the prohibitive cost of obtaining them.
8C/M3 ( Grades: 6-8 ): In many instances, manufacturing and other technological activities are performed at a site close to an energy resource. Some forms of energy are transported easily, others are not.
C.4.5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Human beings live within the world's ecosystems. Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected.
E.1.1.a ( Grades: 5-8 ): Students should develop their abilities by identifying a specified need, considering its various aspects, and talking to different potential users or beneficiaries. They should appreciate that for some needs, the cultural backgrounds and beliefs of different groups can affect the criteria for a suitable product.
E.1.1.a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Students should be able to identify new problems or needs and to change and improve current technological designs.
E.1.2.a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Students should demonstrate thoughtful planning for a piece of technology or technique. Students should be introduced to the roles of models and simulations in these processes.
E.1.3.a ( Grades: 5-8 ): Students should organize materials and other resources, plan their work, make good use of group collaboration where appropriate, choose suitable tools and techniques, and work with appropriate measurement methods to ensure adequate accuracy.
E.1.4.a ( Grades: 5-8 ): Students should use criteria relevant to the original purpose or need, consider a variety of factors that might affect acceptability and suitability for intended users or beneficiaries, and develop measures of quality with respect to such criteria and factors; they should also suggest improvements and, for their own products, try proposed modifications.
E.1.5.a ( Grades: 5-8 ): Students should review and describe any completed piece of work and identify the stages of problem identification, solution design, implementation, and evaluation.
E.2.4 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technological solutions have trade-offs, such as safety, cost, efficiency, and appearance. Engineers often build in back-up systems to provide safety. Risk is part of living in a highly technological world. Reducing risk often results in new technology.
E.2.5 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Technological designs have constraints. Some constraints are unavoidable, for example, properties of materials, or effects of weather and friction; other constraints limit choices in the design, for example, environmental protection, human safety, and aesthetics.
F.3.1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Human populations use resources in the environment in order to maintain and improve their existence. Natural resources have been and will continue to be used to maintain human populations.
F.4.3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Many factors influence environmental quality. Factors that students might investigate include population growth, resource use, population distribution, overconsumption, the capacity of technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economic, political, and religious views, and different ways humans view the earth.
F.5.3 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Technology influences society through its products and processes. Technology influences the quality of life and the ways people act and interact. Technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes that can be beneficial or detrimental to individuals and to society. Social needs, attitudes, and values influence the direction of technological development.