10I/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The improvement of microscope lenses and design in the 1600s led to discovery of a vast new world of microscopically small plants and animals, among them bacteria and yeasts. Because most microorganisms do not cause disease, they are present even in healthy individuals. Therefore, the discovery of those microorganisms did not suggest what effects they might have on humans and other organisms.
5B/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. When they occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only. The experiences an organism has during its lifetime can affect its offspring only if the genes in its own sex cells are changed by the experience.
5B/H6a ( Grades: 9-12 ): The many body cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions.
5C/H2a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Within the cells are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, passing information, and even movement.
5C/H2b ( Grades: 9-12 ): In addition to the basic cellular functions common to all cells, most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.
5C/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism or even other organisms.
5C/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): ene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled division called cancer. Exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus the chance of cancer.
5C/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): A living cell is composed of a small number of chemical elements mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Carbon, because of its small size and four available bonding electrons, can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
5C/M1a ( Grades: 6-8 ): All living things are composed of cells, from just one to many millions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope.
6C/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
6E/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. Some genetic diseases appear only when an individual has inherited a certain faulty gene from both parents.
NSTA National Science Education Standards
C.1.1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. Every cell is surrounded by a membrane that separates it from the outside world. Inside the cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different molecules which form a variety of specialized structures that carry out such cell functions as energy production, transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and the storage of genetic material.
C.1.2 ( Grades: 5-8 ): All organisms are composed of cells--the fundamental unit of life. Most organisms are single cells; other organisms, including humans, are multicellular.
C.5.3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy. Energy is released when the bonds of food molecules are broken and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells usually store this energy temporarily in phosphate bonds of a small high-energy compound called ATP.
F.1.2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The severity of disease symptoms is dependent on many factors, such as human resistance and the virulence of the disease-producing organism. Many diseases can be prevented, controlled, or cured. Some diseases, such as cancer, result from specific body dysfunctions and cannot be transmitted.