10B/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Isaac Newton, building on earlier descriptions of motion by Galileo, Kepler, and others, created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Newton's system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration; his three laws of motion relating them; and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
10B/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Newton's mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.
10B/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): For several centuries, Newton's science was accepted without major changes because it explained so many different phenomena, could be used to predict many physical events (such as the appearance of Halley's comet), was mathematically sound, and had many practical applications.
10B/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Although overtaken in the 1900s by Einstein's relativity theory, Newton's ideas persist and are widely used. Moreover, his influence has extended far beyond physics and astronomy, serving as a model for other sciences and even raising philosophical questions about free will and the organization of social systems.
4F/E1a ( Grades: 3-5 ): Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces.
4F/E1bc ( Grades: 3-5 ): The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have.
4F/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The change in motion (direction or speed) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass.
4F/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): henever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it.
4F/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.
4F/M3a ( Grades: 6-8 ): An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or direction of motion, or both.
NSTA National Science Education Standards
B.2.2 ( Grades: 5-8 ): An object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line.
B.2.3 ( Grades: 5-8 ): If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion.
B.4.1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object.
CCSS.Math.Cont.5.OA.B.3 ( Grade 5 ): Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane.