10H/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Darwin argued that certain biologically inherited characteristics give an organism an advantage in surviving and reproducing compared to other organisms of the same species. The offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the accumulation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.
5A/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): One of the most general distinctions among organisms is between plants, which use sunlight to make their own food, and animals, which consume energy-rich foods. Some kinds of organisms, many of them microscopic, cannot be neatly classified as either plants or animals.
5A/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Traditionally, a species has been defined as all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring.
5B/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents.
5B/M2a ( Grades: 6-8 ): In sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female merges with a specialized cell from a male.
5D/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): For any particular environment, some kinds of plants and animals thrive, some do not live as well, and some do not survive at all.
5E/E3 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Over the whole earth, organisms are growing, dying, decaying, and new organisms are being produced by the old ones.
5F/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.
5F/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Natural selection provides the following mechanism for evolution: Some variation in heritable characteristics exists within every species; some of these characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing; and the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. As a result, the proportion of individuals that have advantageous characteristics will increase.
5F/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): New heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells. Changes in other cells of an organism cannot be passed on to the next generation.
5F/H6b ( Grades: 9-12 ): Chance alone can result in the persistence of some heritable characteristics having no survival or reproductive advantage or disadvantage for the organism.
5F/M2a ( Grades: 6-8 ): Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely than others to survive and have offspring.
5F/P1 ( Grades: K-2 ): Different plants and animals have external features that help them thrive in different kinds of places.
6A/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Like other complex organisms, people vary somewhat in size and shape, skin color, body proportions, body hair, facial features, muscle strength, handedness, and so on. But these differences are minor compared to the overall similarity of all humans, as demonstrated by the fact that people from anywhere in the world can reproduce with each other and donate blood or organs to one another. Humans are indeed a single species. Furthermore, as great as cultural differences between groups of people seem to be, people's complex languages, technologies, and arts unite them as a species distinct from others.
6B/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that embeds itself in the wall of the uterus. As the embryo develops, it receives nourishment and eliminates wastes by the transfer of substances between its blood and the blood of its mother.
6B/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Human fertilization occurs when sperm cells from a male's testes are deposited near an egg cell from the female ovary, and one of the sperm cells enters the egg cell.
6C/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
8A/P1b ( Grades: K-2 ): To grow well, plants need enough warmth, light, and water. Crops must be protected from weeds and pests.
NSTA National Science Education Standards
C.2.1 ( Grades: K-4 ): Plants and animals have life cycles that include being born, developing into adults, reproducing, and eventually dying. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms.
C.2.2 ( Grades: 5-8 ): In many species, including humans, females produce eggs and males produce sperm. Plants also reproduce sexually--the egg and sperm are produced in the flowers of flowering plants. An egg and sperm unite to begin development of a new individual. That new individual receives genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and its father (via the sperm). Sexually produced offspring never are identical to either of their parents.
F.4.1 ( Grades: K-4 ): Environments are the space, conditions, and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life.