1.1C.2 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Describe general features of family organization, labor division, agriculture, manufacturing, and trade in Western African societies. [Analyze multiple causation]
1.2A.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe types of evidence and methods of investigation by which scholars have reconstructed the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement. [Appreciate historical perspectives]
1.2A.4 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Identify areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities probably appeared and analyze the environmental and technological factors that made possible experiments with farming in these regions. [Incorporate multiple causation]
1.2B.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe social, cultural, and economic characteristics of large agricultural settlements such as Çatal Hüyuk or Jericho. [Obtain historical data]
1.2B.3 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how peoples of West Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Americas domesticated food plants and developed agricultural communities in response to local needs and conditions. [Compare and contrast behaviors and institutions]
1.2B.4 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze archaeological evidence from agricultural village sites in Southwest Asia, North Africa, China, or Europe indicating the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specializations, and differences in the daily tasks that men and women performed. [Hold interpretations of history as tentative]
10.1.3 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the usefulness of the concept that the revolutions of tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization constituted the three most important turning points in human history.
2.2B.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe the relationship between the development of plow technology and the emergence of new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
2.2B.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze evidence for the growth of agricultural societies in tropical West Africa and Southeast Asia in the second millennium BCE. [Interrogate historical data]
2.4A.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the various criteria that have been used to define “civilization” and the fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, notably hunter-gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies. [Consider multiple perspectives]
2.4A.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Identify areas of Eurasia and Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE and analyze connections between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
2.4A.4 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Explain why geographic, environmental and economic conditions favored hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small-scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilization in many parts of the world. [Utilize mathematical and quantitative data]
3.1D.4 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze why relations between pastoral nomadic peoples of Central Asia and major agrarian states of Eurasia involved both conflict and economic interdependence. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
3.3C.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the importance of iron technology and family division of labor on the expansion of agriculture and the southeastward migration of Chinese farmers. [Analyze multiple causation]
3.4A.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the relationship between maize cultivation and the development of complex societies in Mesoamerica. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
4.7A.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the importance of Muslims and Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa. [Analyze the influence of ideas]
5.1A.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how improved agricultural production, population growth, urbanization, and commercialization were interconnected. [Analyze multiple causation]
5.2A.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe manorialism and serfdom as institutions of medieval Europe and analyze how population growth and agricultural expansion affected the legal position and working lives of peasant men and women. [Appreciate historical perspective]
5.2B.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze connections between population growth and increased agricultural production and technological innovation. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
5.4A.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the importance of agriculture, gold production, and the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the growth of the Mali and Songhay empires. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
6.1C.1 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain how major geographical and technological influences, including hydraulic engineering and barbed wire, affected farming, mining, and ranching. [Draw upon data in historical maps]
6.3C.2 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the causes and effects of the depressions of 1873-79 and 1893-97 and the ways in which government, business, labor, and farmers responded. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
7.2A.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe the characteristics of the “agricultural revolution” that occurred in England and Western Europe and analyze its effects on population growth, industrialization, and patterns of land-holding. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
7.3B.4 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the role of new technology and scientific research in the rise of agribusiness and agricultural productivity. [Utilize quantitative data]
7.5A.3 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, commercialization, and other developments affected agricultural production in various parts of the world. [Employ quantitative analysis]
8.1A.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze why European colonial territories and Latin American countries continued to maintain largely agricultural and mining economies in the early 20th century. [Identify issues and problems in the past]
9.2E.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze interconnections between space exploration and developments since the 1950s in scientific research, agricultural productivity, consumer culture, intelligence gathering, and other aspects of contemporary life. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
Benchmarks for Science Literacy
10I/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Current health practices emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, the pasteurization of milk, isolation, and aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body's immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; and antibiotics and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms.
1C/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Scientists are employed by colleges and universities, business and industry, hospitals, and many government agencies. Their places of work include offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, and natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.
3C/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Technology is largely responsible for the great revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation and medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and communications that have radically changed how people live and work.
4D/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The configuration of atoms in a molecule determines the molecule's properties. Shapes are particularly important in how large molecules interact with others.
4D/M11 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristic properties.
5E/M1c ( Grades: 6-8 ): Plants can use the food they make immediately or store it for later use.
6A/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, and health care have dramatically changed how people live and work and have resulted in rapid increases in the human population.
7G/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The wealth of a country depends on the balance between how much its resources and products are sought by other nations and how much of other nations' resources and products it seeks. Even if a country could produce everything it needs for itself, it may still benefit from trade with other countries.
8A/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): New varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics.
8A/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Government sometimes intervenes in matching agricultural supply to demand to ensure a stable, high-quality, and inexpensive food supply. Regulations are often also designed to protect farmers from abrupt changes in farming conditions and from competition from other countries.
8A/H3a ( Grades: 9-12 ): Agricultural technology requires trade-offs between increased production and environmental harm and between efficient production and social values.
8A/H3b ( Grades: 9-12 ): In the 1900s, agricultural technology led to a huge shift of population from farms to cities and to a great change in how people live and work.
8A/M3acd ( Grades: 6-8 ): In agriculture, as in all technologies, there are always trade-offs to be made. Specializing in one crop may risk disaster if changes in weather or increases in pest populations wipe out that crop. Also, the soil may be exhausted of some nutrients, which can be replenished by rotating the right crops.
8A/M3b ( Grades: 6-8 ): Getting food from many different places makes people less dependent on weather in any one place yet more dependent on transportation and communication among far-flung markets.
8A/M4bc ( Grades: 6-8 ): With improved technology, only a small fraction of workers in the U.S. actually plant and harvest the products that people use. Most workers are engaged in processing, packaging, transporting, and selling what is produced.
8C/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Industry, transportation, urban development, agriculture, and most other human activities are closely tied to the amount and kind of energy available. People in different parts of the world have different amounts and kinds of energy resources to use and use them for different purposes.
8F/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Sanitation measures such as the use of sewers, landfills, isolation, and safe food handling are important in controlling the spread of organisms that cause disease. Improving sanitation to prevent disease has contributed more to saving human life than any advance in medical treatment.
8F/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Increased knowledge about nutrition has led to the development of diets containing the variety of foods that can help people live longer and healthier lives.
NSTA National Science Education Standards
B.1.2 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved. Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways; metals is an example of such a group.
B.3.1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Chemical reactions occur all around us, for example in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. Complex chemical reactions involving carbon-based molecules take place constantly in every cell in our bodies.
B.3.3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form new bonds. Radical reactions control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions.