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        Segregation Ordinances: Birmingham, AL

        In the years immediately following the Civil War, the Supreme Court passed federal legislation granting African Americans citizenship rights. But by 1910, all of the former Confederate states had adopted segregation laws of their own, designed to prevent African Americans from participating fully in American society. In this primary source document from 1951, the city of Birmingham, Alabama spells out its segregation ordinances, the laws requiring the separation of the races in restaurants, public performance spaces, public transportation, and other social venues.

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