Factors of Production

  • All-Female Enterprise | Wide Angle

    The Azka Pickle Cooperative is an all-female enterprise that has empowered a group of Palestinian widows. The women are faced with more challenges than a group of businessmen is likely to encounter, but are successful in meeting these challenges head-on with great benefit to their cooperative. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "Pickles, Inc.," viewers experience the ups and downs of this all-female operated pickle business.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Changes in Turkey | Wide Angle

    Since its establishment in 1923, the republic of Turkey has strived for Westernization. Radical reforms to secularize the Muslim nation created a tradition based on Eastern and Western civilizations. This environment conceived “Turkey’s Tigers,” a new breed of businessmen who have found a balance between faith and enterprise. In this video from Wide Angle, meet Mustafa Karaduman, CEO of Turkey's largest Islamic-style clothing chain.

    Grades: 9-12
  • The Coffee Crisis | Wide Angle

    This video segment from Wide Angle: "The Market Maker" follows the Ethiopian government's effort to mitigate the impact of the 2008 global economic collapse by calling upon Eleni Gabre-Madhins' fledgling Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) to start trading coffee-the nation's primary cash crop-before it is logistically prepared to do so.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Farm and City | Wide Angle

    Taxes and fines levied by the local government have forced China’s farmers from the countryside into the city. Although in urban areas they are considered second class citizens due to laws that prevent them from legally establishing urban residence, the countryside has proven too difficult to sustain a livable income. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "To Have and Have Not," visit the farm of a peasant in rural China and the city to which millions have escaped in search of employment.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Farmer's Dilemma | Wide Angle: Window into Global History

    Agriculture has long been the backbone of Ireland’s economy. However, the advent of the Celtic Tiger, the name given to Ireland's recent economic transformation, has many farmers struggling to earn a profit and with many in the younger generation less inclined to take over their families' businesses, the future of Ireland’s rural community remains bleak. In this segment from the Wide Angle film "Mixed Blessings," visit the farm of Ruaidhiri Deasy, a farmer who values his family’s history in agriculture, but also believes in the progress of the next generation.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Farmers in Peril | Wide Angle: Window into Global History

    India boasts one of the world’s fastest growing economies, but good fortune has yet to visit India’s impoverished rural communities which make up two-thirds of the population. The global competitiveness of free trade has had a negative impact on rural areas and overwhelming debt has driven many farmers in the central Indian region of Vidarbha to suicide. In this segment from the Wide Angle film "The Dying Fields," meet Kishor Tawari of the Vidarbha Peoples’ Protest Forum, an organization that tracks the rate of suicide in the region and aims to relieve desperate farmers of debt.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Foot and Mouth | Wide Angle

    The government of Botswana’s official motive for building a fence along its border with Zimbabwe was to halt the spread of foot and mouth disease among its cattle. Animals infected with the deadly disease drifted over the border into Botswana, nearly collapsing its cattle industry. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "Border Jumpers," learn about the foot-and-mouth outbreak from Botswana’s Foreign Affairs Minister and meet a farmer whose livelihood was destroyed by the disease.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Industry and Islam | Wide Angle

    Kayseri is a city in the center of Turkey that has recently experienced a wave of business development. Although Turkey’s founder, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, thought that secular values were the key to his country’s development, the Kayseri Industrial Zone has been the site of great prosperity for a group of devout Muslim businessmen. These entrepreneurs helped establish a network of businesses centering around a 6,000-person mosque. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "Turkey's Tigers," visit the Kayseri Industrial Zone and meet its president, Ahmet Hasyuncu.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Life & Debt | Wide Angle

    The rural region of Vidarbha in central India has been hit hard by droughts, sinking cotton prices spurred by India’s entry into the World Trade Organization and increasing debt. These circumstances have led to a startling increase of suicide among the region’s farmers. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "The Dying Fields," watch Urkuda Attaram as she works the nine acre farm her husband left her when he committed suicide due to oppressive debt.

    Grades: 9-12
  • The Moving Parts of a Market | Wide Angle

    This video from Wide Angle: "The Market Maker" looks at the efforts of Ethiopian market reformers led by Eleni Gabre-Madhins to create an Ethiopian Commodities Exchange (ECX) in the capital city of Addis Ababa. It explains the basic role of an exchange, outlines its key elements, and describes the specific challenges faced by the reformers-the greatest of which is farmers' traditional attachment to archaic and inefficient modes of trade.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Next Steps | Wide Angle

    In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "The Market Maker," Eleni Gabre-Madhin and other Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) market reformers celebrate the opening of a new sesame market while acknowledging the massive challenges they still face in bringing the ECX to millions of Ethiopia’s poor subsistence farmers. Series host Aaron Brown concludes the segment by reviewing these challenges, which include convincing millions of largely illiterate small scale farmers that their future depends in trusting the relatively sophisticated economic model which the ECX represents.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Night Transport | Wide Angle

    The working population of India’s BPO (business process outsourcing) industry is more than half women. In part because of this, India’s economic laws and structures had to be adjusted to meet the special demands of women employees. Safe forms of transport needed to be provided to ensure the security of women and to satisfy parents' concerns. In this video from the Wide Angle film "1-800-INDIA," learn about the women commuters of the BPO industry and an entrepreneur who has profited from providing night transport to the female workers of BPO firms.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Pickle Business | Wide Angle

    Years ago, as an eighth grader, Fatma Nator was forced to end her formal education and focus on her domestic education. It was both forms of education, however, that provided Fatma with the background she needed to become the marketing director of the pickle business that she and other Palestinian widows established. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "Pickles, Inc.," learn about Fatma and her role in merchandising her company’s products.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Trading Up: Bringing Ethiopia’s Economy into the 21st Century | Wide Angle: Lesson Plan

    In this lesson, students learn about the efforts of Ethiopian reformers to create a modern agricultural commodities exchange in an economic environment historically dominated by inefficient tradition and government corruption.  They will be able to describe the limitations of traditional “face-to-face” commerce and the transformative potential of open and reliable trading markets. Also they will learn the key elements of a successful commodities exchange. Students will also learn about  the underlying causes of the 1984 Ethiopian famine and be able to describe the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange.



    Grades: 9-13+
  • Why Trade Matters | Wide Angle

    Wide Angle: "The Market Maker" provides an introduction to the challenges faced by the developing Ethiopian economy and the tragic consequences of its collapse in 1984. Ethiopian market reformer Eleni Gabre-Madhins discusses Ethiopia’s new nationwide agricultural commodities trading system and its vital importance not only to the nation’s economy, but also to the very survival of a population which relies on trade to distribute food from where it is stockpiled to where it is needed.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Widows in Israel | Wide Angle

    Financial independence provides strength and security, two invaluable aids in facing the vulnerability that envelops a woman who has been widowed. In this video segment from the Wide Angle film "Pickles, Inc.," meet the widowed Palestinian Muslim women from the Arab-Isaeli village of Tamra in the Galilee who have started a pickle business and improved their financial and social status.

    Grades: 9-12
  • Winning the Farmers' Trust | Wide Angle

    This video segment from Wide Angle: "The Market Maker" follows Eleni Gabre-Madhins and other Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) market reformers as they attempt to win sesame farmers' trust and get them to deposit their crops in ECX warehouses.

    Grades: 9-12