The California Gold Rush (1848-1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Half arrived by sea and half came from the east overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. The gold-seekers, called 'forty-niners' (as a reference to 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. At first, the gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later, gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning.