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        Locked Out: The Fall of Massive Resistance

        Locked Out: The Fall of Massive Resistance sheds light on this dark moment in history through interviews, academic commentary and archival footage from the era. The documentary, produced to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of the so-called Massive Resistance laws, offers first-hand accounts from African-American students who found themselves on the front lines of this desegregation battle.

        Locked Out: The Fall of Massive Resistance Introduction - 1

        Locked Out: The Fall Of Massive Resistance is the story of the tragedies and triumphs of the children of Virginia who found themselves on the front lines of a cultural war that desegregated Virginia's public schools, and forever altered American history.

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        Schools Prior to Desegregation -2

        The doctrine of separate but equal fueled the Jim Crow Laws. Even public schools were segregated. White schools fared much better than underfunded black schools.

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        Segregation Court Cases - 3

        The Supreme Court declared separate but equal unconstitutional in its ruling on Brown v. Board of Education. This 1954 decision set off a wave of emotions in the south.

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        Massive Resistance Laws - 4

        In 1956, the southern states were scrambling to find a way to stop school desegregation. Let by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr., Virginia passed a series of bills known as Massive Resistance Laws. They included a mandate to refuse funding for any public school that was about to integrate.

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        Massive Resistance Laws Enforced - 5

        After the Brown v Board of Education decision, individual court decisions ordered limited integration in various localities. Those localities delayed by appealing to higher levels of the court system. Finally, there were no avenues for appeals left. Certain schools either had to desegregate or th

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        Massive Resistance Declared Unconstitutional - 6

        In Virginia, Massive Resistance Laws were declared unconstitutional by both the State Supreme Court and the Federal District Court in early 1959. Arlington County and the City of Norfolk were the first to desegregate their schools in Virginia.

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        First Day of Integration - 7

        The end of the Massive Resistance laws put African-American students on the front lines of the desegregation battle. Some of these students offer first-hand accounts of their experiences attending an integrated school.

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        Early Years of Integration - 8

        African-American students shed light on the early years of desegregation through interviews, academic commentary and archival footage from the era.

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        Prince Edward County Virginia 1959 - 9

        Although the courts had ruled Massive Resistance Laws unconstitutional, Prince Edward County, Virginia had found a loophole. They closed all of their public schools, including the black schools, in the fall of 1959.

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        Cultural Changes - 10

        Desegregation was part of the Civil Rights Movement and was a heroic episode in American history. It was followed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The cultural changes are ongoing.

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