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        Indian Boarding Schools: Assimilation Through Education

        This primary resource set includes images, videos, and documents which tell the complex tale of the efforts to assimilate American Indians through education.

        http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/assimilation/

        Report of Forest Grove School, 1882

        This Library of Congress primary source document is an annual report written about Forest Grove School, a government boarding school for American Indians. The report includes accomplishments of the school, information about apprenticeships, news about the girls' department, and suggestions for improvement.

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        Sham Battle at the Pan-American Exposition (Part I)

        This Library of Congress primary source is part one of a video showing a sham battle which took place at the Stadium on the Pan-American Exhibition grounds, between the six tribes of American Indians and the United States Infantry stationed at Buffalo. This occurred on the closing day of the Pan-American Exposition on Saturday, November 2, 1901.

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        Sham Battle at the Pan-American Exposition (Part II)

        This Library of Congress primary source is part two of a video showing a sham battle which took place at the Stadium on the Pan-American Exhibition grounds, between the six tribes of American Indians and the United States Infantry stationed at Buffalo. This occurred on the closing day of the Pan-American Exposition on Saturday, November 2, 1901.

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        School Begins

        This Library of Congress primary source print is a caricature showing Uncle Sam lecturing four children labeled Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Cuba in front of children holding books labeled with various U.S. states. In the background is an American Indian child holding a book upside down, as well as a Chinese boy at door.

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        Group of Indian Boys from Dakota Territory

        This Library of Congress primary source group portrait shows American Indian (Dakota) men dressed in suits, in Hampton, Virginia. The identification reads: "Beginning at your left, rear row: White Breast: returned home August, 1880. U-har-ke-um-pa: returned home to Standing Rock, Dakota, October, 1881. Is employed as Agency carpenter, and is doing well. E-corrupt-ta-ha: died at Hampton, June 1880. Ka-ru-nach: returned October, 1881, to Fort Berthold. Is assistant Agency shoemaker, and is doing well. Front row: Laughing Face: returned to Fort Berthold, October, 1881. Is learning the Blacksmith's trade and is doing well. Pa-ma-ni: returned to Crow Creek, October, 1881. Is doing well in the Agency Carpenter shop. A-hu-ka: returned to Fort Berthold October, 1881. Is doing well in Agency Carpenter shop. Ari-hotch-kish: returned to Fort Berthold, October, 1881. Is in agency school, and is to work on agency farm in the summer."

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        "Educating the Indians": Newspaper Illustration, 1884

        This Library of Congress primary source illustration was originally published in "Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper." The full title is "Educating the Indians: Female Pupil of the Government School at Carlisle Visits her Home at Pine Ridge Agency."

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        Chiricahua Apaches as they Arrived at Carlisle from Fort Marion, Florida

        This Library of Congress photograph shows Hugh Chee, Bishop Eatennah, Ernest Hogee, Humphrey Escharzay, Samson Noran, Basil Ekarden, Clement Seanilzay, Beatrice Kiahtel, Janette Pahgostatum, Margaret Y. Nadasthilah, Fred'k Eskelsejah, Chiricahua Apache boys and girls, posing outdoors at the Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania after their arrival from Fort Marion, Florida.

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        Indian Reservations West of Mississipi River

        This Library of Congress primary resource has been converted into an interactive map which students can use to explore Indian Reservation locations west of the Mississipi River. Click on the picture at the top of the page to use as an interactive map. Then, to change the view, select desired zoom level and window size from the options below the Zoom View window and then click on the image. The display will be centered where you click. To move up, down, left, or right within a zoom level, click near the edge of the image in the Zoom View or select an area in the Navigator View. The red box on the Navigator View indicates the area of the image being viewed in the Zoom View.

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        Reports of Indian Schools, 1887

        This Library of Congress primary source document is the 1887 annual report showing the population of girls and boys from different American Indian tribes at the United States Indian Industrial School. The document breaks the population down into new and returning students and also notes the number of students who have died.

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        Reports of Indian Schools, 1886

        This Library of Congress primary source document is the 1886 annual report showing the population of girls and boys from different American Indian tribes at the United States Indian Industrial School. The document breaks the population down into new and returning students and also notes the number of students who have died.

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        A Picture of Northwest Indians: Federal Writers' Project Interview (1938)

        This Library of Congress primary source document is an interview done as part of the WPA Federal Writers Project documenting the boarding school experience of American Indian children.

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        The Indian School at Chemawa

        In this Library of Congress primary source, the author discusses the mistreatment of American Indians by the U.S. government at length before bringing up the importance of the Indian Industrial School at Chemawa, Oregon. The author explains that the school is an excellent use of government money.

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        Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs: Education (1908)

        This Library of Congress primary source document, shows the location, date of opening, capacity, enrollment, and average attendance of American Indian day schools in the United States as of 1908.

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        Tlingit Mission Students at Sheldon Jackson Institute: Sitka, Alaska (1887)

        In this Library of Congress primary source photograph, Tlingit mission students pose with Sheldon Jackson on the porch of Sheldon Jackson Institute, Sitka, Alaska in 1887. Boys and girls in school clothes (boys in matching jackets) pose with women and several men on the steps of a large multi-story building and children posed by gender.

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        The Indian Girls at Hampton, 1882

        This Library of Congress primary source document was originally published in "Harper's Monthly" and includes two images of American Indian girls at a school in Hampton, MA.

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        The Indian Boys at Hampton, 1878

        This Library of Congress primary document details the process through which fifteen American Indian boys, held as prisoners of war after the great massacres by the Five Tribes in the Indian Territory, went to Hampton, MA to receive an education at the Normal Institute.

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        Hethu'shka Song

        This Library of Congress primary source audio recording is called "Hethu'shka Song", or the "War Dance Song". It was recorded in 1983 at an Omaha pow-wow in Macy, Nebraska.

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