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        Library of Congress: Media Gallery | Jim Crow in America

        After the Civil War, most Southern states limited the economic and physical freedom of former slaves by enacting laws known as Jim Crow laws. This set of primary resources includes images and documents that provide a window into this time period, as well as a Teacher's Guide with historical context and teaching suggestions.

        http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/civil-rights/

        Teacher's Guide: Jim Crow in America

        This set of primary resources from the Library of Congress containing images, documents, and audio clips provides a window into this time period, as well as a Teacher's Guide with historical context and teaching suggestions.

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        Oliver Scott's Refined Negro Minstrels

        Oliver Scott's Refined Negro Minstrels advertises that it is "a happy lot of funny coons in myriad acts entrancing, new jokes and gags by black buffoons, the best of songs and dancing."

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        Jump Jim Crow

        "Jump Jim Crow" has its origins in the minstrel stage, where the tune was used for an often extravagant or elaborate set dance. The song and dance were created by Thomas ("Daddy") Rice in the later 1830s. The published versions show connections to Henry Reed's set, but they are also different in many respects —frequently a bit rough and angular — suggesting that the folk process has extracted some grace from the angularity of the minstrel originals. The pace in this set is slower than in typical breakdown tunes, suggesting its use in a clog or other slower-paced fancy dance.

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        Jim Crow

        This print shows an African American man in tattered clothes walking or dancing as a couple of animals dressed as humans stroll alongside a river with a steamboat and sailboat.

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        Jim Crow Jubilee

        This is a sheet music cover illustration with caricatures of ragged African American musicians and dancers.

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        Al. G. Field Greater Minstrels Fun's Famous Fellows

        This primary source depicts Al. G. Field Greater Minstrels Fun's Famous Fellows.

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        The Crow Family

        Song sheets are not sheet music but lyrics given to audience members so they could sing along at performances. This is a song sheet documenting the rise of Jim Crow laws in the United States.

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        Airship with a Jim Crow Family

        This primary source depicts an airship with a "Jim Crow" trailer.

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        Jump Jim Crow Sheet Music

        "Jump Jim Crow" has its origins in the minstrel stage, where the tune was used for an often extravagant or elaborate set dance. The song and dance were created by Thomas ("Daddy") Rice in the later 1830s. The published versions show connections to Henry Reed's set, but they are also different in many respects —frequently a bit rough and angular — suggesting that the folk process has extracted some grace from the angularity of the minstrel originals. The pace in this set is slower than in typical breakdown tunes, suggesting its use in a clog or other slower-paced fancy dance.

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        Civil Rights Act 1875

        Signed by President Grant in March 1875, this stated that everyone regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude had the right to the same treatment in "public accommodations." This act was rarely enforced and struck down by the Supreme Court in 1883.

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        What a Colored Man Should do to Vote

        This primary source reads, "As citizens of the United States you cannot value too highly your right to vote, which is an expression of your choice of the officers who shall be placed in control of your nearest and dearest interests. NEVER SELL YOUR VOTE."

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        Palestine Daily Herald: The Jim Crow Law

        This article is from a Texas newspaper documenting the addition of signs for streetcars indicating sections for Whites and African Americans in response to the passage of the Jim Crow law.

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        Richmond Planet: The Jim Crow Car

        First published in 1882, "The Planet" by 1904 had reached a weekly circulation of 4,200. The paper also quickly gained a reputation as a staunch defender of the African-American community and a voice against racial injustice —“daring to hurl thunderbolts of truth into the ranks of the wicked. . . . No stronger race man is known among us.” The Planet covered local, national, and international news, especially focusing on segregation, the depredations of the Ku Klux Klan, voting rights, and the scourge of lynching. Mitchell — “courageous almost to a fault” — never wavered in his loud protests, even in the face of frequent death threats. He once armed himself and personally went to investigate a lynching.

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        The Appeal: Professor William H.H. Hart

        "The Western Appeal" and "The Appeal" were noted African-American weekly newspapers published in St. Paul, Minnesota. The Western Appeal began in 1885 and was conceived as a source of news and information for the burgeoning educated black population in the upper Midwest. The newspaper strived to be a source of local and national news, as well as a hub for local advertising from black-owned businesses. Though the Western Appeal had its start in St. Paul, it quickly broadened its circulation to cover Minneapolis and Chicago. In 1889, to further seek a national standing, the newspaper dropped "Western" from its title and became simply "The Appeal."

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        Negroes to Ride

        This primary source proclaims, "Negroes to Ride in City Railway Passenger Cars!" Morton McMichael declines to say wether he is in favor of, or against this, while Daniel M. Fox declares himself in opposition to all such privileges.

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        The Washington Times: "Wants Jim Crow Law All Over the States"

        The author of this letter to the editor of the Washington Times is encouraging support for Jim Crow laws in Washington, D.C and expanding them to cover the United States.

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        Jim Crow Lyrics

        Song sheets are not sheet music but lyrics given to audience members so they could sing along at performances.

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        The Washington Herald: Jim Crow Law Upheld

        The Washington Herald first appeared on October 8, 1906 with the aim of upholding serious journalism in an era of muckraking. The paper created a niche for itself based on substantive news reporting, displaying the motto "A Paper of Quality" on its masthead. An early advertisement proclaimed the arrival of the Herald as a "clean, compact, newsy newspaper that would appeal to the intelligent and discriminating clientele of Washington."

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