In this lesson, students explore the characteristics of an activist and how activism is sustained over time, despite obstacles and consequences, in order to effect societal change. They delve into the individual roles and qualities of active or potential activists and how they might, will and do effect change.
Ai Weiwei has a serious problem with authority: The Chinese government not only kidnapped the world-renowned artist and imprisoned him in a secret location for protesting its repressive policies, but after his release it conducted a show trial on baseless charges of tax evasion and pornography. Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case, a documentary by Andreas Johnsen, dissects the persecution and shows how the government's attempts to silence Ai Weiwei have turned him into China's most powerful artist and an irrepressible voice for free speech and human rights around the globe.
Two 50-minute class periods
By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Characterize the attributes of an activist
- Cite how an activist can sustain efforts to effect change
- Demonstrate and put into action their proclivities for activism
- Film clips from Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case and equipment on which to show them
- Chart paper and markers
- Masking tape
- "Characteristics of an Activist" graphic organizer
1. Divide students into small groups. Distribute a sheet of chart paper and a marker to each group recorder.
2. Have students in each group reflect on people who have made or are making substantial changes in the school, community, nation or somewhere in the world. Tell groups to discuss a few individuals and to select one (per group).
3. Instruct each recorder to draw a figure of a person (embellished as desired) who will represent the selected individual for that group. Ask each group to discuss what the person has accomplished and what characteristics or qualities the individual exhibited (exhibits) that enabled them to take action toward change. Give the groups about five minutes to do this.
4. Invite groups to post the images and discuss with the class the characteristics they named, encouraging students to keep these traits in mind.
5. Post this Pablo Picasso quote that starts off the film: "Painting is not done to decorate apartments. It is an instrument of war." Bring the class together. Have students briefly reflect on what this statement means. (They are likely to talk about how art can be used to take a socio-political stand, challenge others, as a tool of change and so on.)
6. Tell students that this quote starts off the film Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case. Instruct them to keep this statement in mind as they watch film clips that focus on Ai Weiwei's specific role as an activist. Distribute and explain how to use the "Characteristics of an Activist" graphic organizer, which students will fill in individually as they watch the clips. (It might be best to show about four segments at a time so students can briefly reflect and take notes before viewing the next set of clips).
7. After students watch the clips, pose all or some of these discussion questions. (It is probably best to post the questions in advance so that students can reflect on them as they watch the clips.):
- What is Ai Weiwei fighting for? Why?
- How does he "fight" and why does he do this, despite the repercussions?
- Does Ai Weiwei use his art only as a tool for activism? Discuss and describe other methods.
- Does Ai Weiwei effect change? Describe.
- Can Ai Weiwei rally sufficient support and resources from others in order to change some of China's politics and policies? Explain.
- In the article "Ai Weiwei: I'm Not an Activist" and accompanying video interview, (http://bigthink.com/experts-corner/ai-weiwei-im-not-an-activist), Ai Weiwei states that he sees his ongoing fight against everyday injustices as a matter of personal responsibility. Do you feel that it is a person's responsibility to tackle what is unjust in society? What's the difference between an individual acting on what they see as their responsibility and an activist? Is there a difference? Explain.
- Think back to Picasso's quote stating that painting is "an instrument of war." How does it relate to Ai Weiwei?
8. Ask students to share some of the activist traits they identified while watching the clips. What seem to be the most important and influential qualities of an activist? Ask students to compare and contrast these characteristics with the ones they noted during their group task earlier. What is the same? What is different?
9. Encourage students to think about these qualities and honestly assess their "activist" tendencies. Do they have any or all these qualities? Would they need them all to undertake a particular cause or action they have been considering? Could they or do they want to effect change? If yes, what would be at stake and would they be willing to do what it takes?
10. Either as a written assignment or as part of a discussion as a group or in pairs, students can share stories of work they have done to make something happen at any level, affirming that they do have the capability to effect change.
1. MEDIA AND ACTIVISM
In the film, the media (all types, including social media) plays a significant role in Ai Weiwei's activism. And Ai has an interesting relationship with the media, at once cultivating and using it to his advantage and rejecting it. In this extension, students examine Ai Weiwei's interaction with and use of the media. Students then are assigned to explore the relationship between media and activism, specifically of the socio-political type, and the motives of media members in this context. Do they participate to support the cause or to generate self-promotion? Sources to prompt thinking include:
- Psychology Today: "Four Ways Social Media Is Redefining Activism"
- In the Middle of a Whirlwind: "Media and Activism: Creating and Maintaining Effective Movement Media"
2. CHINA'S GOVERNMENT: HOW MUCH HAS CHANGED?
Ai Weiwei's mother speaks of how the Chinese government made people's lives difficult in the past. In fact, those who challenged the Communist Party were in danger of severe punishment. Ai's mother indicates that things have changed, but only somewhat, and that those who publicly protest against the government still face serious repercussions. Show the following segments in the following order to jumpstart discussion about whether or not things have changed in China:
- Clip 3: "The Charge" (1:41 min.)
- Clip 4: "A Fake Case" (0:59 min.)
- Clip 5: "Breaking Restrictions" (1:17 min.)
- Clip 10: "Back Then" (1.42 min.)
- Clip 8: "Everything Is About Taking Orders" (1:40 min.)
Students explore the history of China's Communist Party regime to determine what has or has not changed in terms of policy, human rights practices, civil freedoms and so on and whether the world external to China, along with its activists and dissidents, can bring about a systemic shift in the nation. For further discussion and/or research, the following sites provide useful information:
- BBC News: China Profile - Timeline
- Council on Foreign Relations: The Chinese Communist Party
- The Guardian: Activist Lawyer Who Defended Ai Weiwei Charged with 'Provoking Trouble'"
- Human Rights Watch: World Report 2014: China"
- Reuters: Timeline: China Milestones Since 1978
- Al Jazeera: "China's Web of Torture and Its Critics"
3. TYPES OF ACTIVISM
Activism is manifested in many different ways and therefore there are myriad perspectives on what is and is not activism. There are those who say protesting, getting physically out into the streets, civil unrest and the like are the only true forms of activism. Others say effecting small, contained change is activism. And what about social media activism (which some call "armchair activism")? If you blog about social issues online, are you an activist? In this task, students first explore what activism is and what it entails and then examine various types of activism. Students consider the following: How does change through activism occur? Do/can all types of activists effect socio-political/economic change? Students consider whether they are activists in one form or another and why that is so.
- Activism 101: Thirteen Types of Activism"
- Canadian Living: Community Activism: How Small Changes Can Help Make a Difference"
- The New Yorker: "Small Change"
- PBS: "Beyond the Hashtag: Next Moves for Action"
- PBS: Twitter Chat: "Can Hashtag Activism Have Real Impact?"
- Pew Research Center: Political Engagement and Activism"
- Ai Weiwei: aiweiwei.com
- Animating Democracy: "What Is Social Change?"
- Big Think: "Ai Weiwei: I'm Not an Activist"
- Center for Communication and Civic Engagement
- The Christian Science Monitor: "Can an Artist Change Society?"
- Mobilizing Ideas: "Who Is an Activist? On the Blurred Boundaries of Activism"
- PBS: "Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry"
- PBS: "Ai Weiwei Sparks Social Media Flames in China"
- People and Planet: How to Be an Activist..."
- Permanent Culture Now: Introduction to Activism"
- POV: "Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case"
- Results: The Activist Toolkit--Developing the Skills to Become a Trained Citizen Advocate"
- Smithsonian: "Is Ai Weiwei China's Most Dangerous Man?"
- Youth Activism