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        4-6

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        Storytelling: Oral Traditions

        Students talk about what makes a good story, look at the oral tradition of storytelling, and compare and contrast stories from two different cultural traditions. This is one of four storytelling lessons.

        Lesson Summary

        Overview

        This is one of four storytelling lessons. Three lessons in this series introduce students to narrativetraditions and storytelling from Alaska, Hawaii, and other cultures through work with varied narratives, objects, andperformance. In this lesson, students talk about what makes a good story, look at the oral tradition of storytelling, andwatch two stories from Native Hawaiian and Alaska Native oral traditions. The fourth lesson has students draw on their newunderstanding of different types of narratives to inspire and enrich their own work.

        Understanding and creating narratives is a fundamental literacy skill—it is also a universal human activity.When students work with written texts, recite or listen to stories, or present narratives through non-verbal means, such asart or dance, they are learning to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate their world. Teachers can buildrewarding experiences for students that activate their natural love for and interest in stories. They can do this in a waythat expands children's fluency and confidence with language, as well as their respect for the rich diversity of narrativeapproaches and language use across cultures. As students experience narratives from different cultures, they gainperspectives on people and stories in worlds that may be unfamiliar. This will be valuable to students in many ways, forexample by helping them bring a sense of perspective to their own culture and stories.

        One theme woven through these four lessons is the diverse nature and form of narratives. All of the narrativespresented in these lessons draw on the great range and variety of stories related to cultural resources available toteacher and student alike. Remember that although the term "narrative" is frequently applied to written texts and oralstories, narratives may also be inherent in a painting, a dance, an object, or a historical record.

        To check out more storytelling lesson plans, go to:

        Storytelling: Tales of Everyday Life Lesson Plan

        Storytelling: Performance and Art Lesson Plan

        Storytelling: Writers' Workshop Lesson Plan

        Objectives

        • Experience stories from a range of cultures and recognize both the commonalities and distinctions instyles and motifs of storytelling
        • Begin to identify key aspects of narratives, such as character, setting, action, conflict, andresolution
        • Begin to gain understanding of audience, author, and viewpoint in the context of narrative
        • Explore how oral traditions are used to pass down stories
        • Compare and contrast stories from two different cultural traditions

        Grade Level: 4-6

        Suggested Time

        • One to two class periods

        Multimedia Resources

        Use these resources to create a simple assessment or video-based assignment with the Lesson Builder tool on PBS LearningMedia.

        Materials

        Before the Lesson

        • Print and copy the PDFs for each student.
        • Review all materials carefully. Watch the videos, review theworksheet, and read the background essays that relate to the lesson. For each resource, ask yourself, "How does thisresource relate to my own understanding of narrative, storytelling, and my language arts goals for my class?" Makeadjustments to the lesson as needed to meet your specific goals for your class.

        Using Journals

        If you will be doing more than one storytelling lesson with your students, it may be helpful to have them use ajournal to record their notes and complete their assigned writings. Electronic journals may also be used. When using eitherprinted or electronic journals, integrate the handouts and assignments so that all the written material produced by thestudents can be kept in one place, and be available for reference from one lesson to the next.

        The Lesson

        Part I: What Makes a Good Story?

        1. Begin by activating students' existing knowledge about stories. Write the following questions on theboard or on chart paper. Have students discuss the questions as a class, and record their comments on the board or chartpaper.

        1. What is a story? How is a story told?
        2. Who tells stories?
        3. What makes a good story?

        2. Show the Oral Traditions QuickTime Video and ask students to thinkabout and discuss what the narrator says about stories. How might she answer the same questions that began the class: Whatmakes a good story? Who tells stories? What is a story? How is a story told?

        Introduce the term "oral tradition" (see background essay for more information) and ask students toconsider why stories might be spoken versus written down. Are the stories of their own lives — their class, school, andfamiliesâwritten, spoken, or recorded in other ways? Who tells them? Who are they for?

        Ask them to think about what it would be like to have no written or electronic way to save a story. Howcould it be made to last?

        Part II: Stories in the Oral Tradition

        3. Explain that students will now watch a story called "How Raven Gave Light to the World," one of many storiesthat have been told and passed down by the people who live on the Northern coast of Alaska. Show The Raven StoryQuicktime Video. Then, create groups (of varying student ability and disposition) and ask students to consider and discussthe following questions:

        1. Who is Raven?
        2. What does he do?
        3. How would you describe Raven? (What words would you use?)
        4. Raven is sometimes described as a "trickster." What might this mean?

        4. Introduce the Maui and the Creation of the Islands QuickTime Video by explaining that thisstory comes from Hawaii and is about how the islands came to be. After the students have watched the video, ask them toconsider and discuss these questions as a whole class:

        1. Who is Maui?
        2. What does he do?
        3. Raven brings stars, moon, and sun to the world; Maui pulls the islands out of the ocean.Stories about creation, or how things came to be, are among the oldest stories people tell. Why are stories of this kindimportant? Why do people like to tell them over and over?

        Check for Understanding

        Hand out a copy of the Story Guide Worksheet PDF Document to students and ask them tothink about the stories of Raven and Maui that they have just watched. Each student should choose one of the videos andfill out the worksheet individually. Let students know that they do not need to use full sentences; the goal is to get themto think about the elements of the story.

        After the students have filled out their worksheets, bring the class back together to discuss the elements ofeach story.

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