Liverpool and the Randstad are gateways to the rest of Europe's core. The concept of relative location contributes to the cycles of growth and decline that Liverpool and the Randstad experience as centers of trade. Liverpool developed as a trade hub; the Randstad developed first through the production of food, then as an important international trade center. The integration and reprioritization of sea, air, and land-based transportation modes are at the heart of the development plans of both areas. Use these summaries to help students understand the major themes of the program The Transforming Industrial Heartland.