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        Horatio's Drive | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Explore images highlighting the cross-country drive of Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson, the first person to drive across the United States in a motor vehicle, or “horseless carriage,” as it was known in 1903. When Jackson embarked on his adventure there were only 150 miles of paved roads in the United States. As a result, planning and preparation for the trip were necessary for success. Jackson's trusty bulldog, Bud, and a co-driver named Sewall K. Crocker joined him on the journey. Jackson named his automobile "The Vermont," after the state in which he lived. View images of Jackson's car, a map of the trip, Jackson himself, and Sewall Crocker.

        The Vermont's Brass Side Lanterns | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        One of the Vermont's two brass side lanterns, from the Smithsonian Exhibit. Below it is the horn. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Lost in Wyoming | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        The National Museum of American History's "America on the Move" exhibition depicts the Vermont and its crew, lost somewhere in Wyoming. Horatio Nelson Jackson and Bud look on as Sewall Crocker (not pictured) attempts to hoist the Vermont out of a mud hole with a block and tackle. Source: Smithson.

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        Steering Wheel | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        One of Alexander Winton's innovations was a hinge that allowed the steering wheel to be tilted up as the driver sat down. The inner lever to the right of the driver's seat controlled the low-speed and reverse gears, the other the high-speed gear clutch and emergency brake. Source: Smithsonian.

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        Acetylene Headlamp | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Jackson and Crocker purchased an acetylene headlamp for night driving, after realizing that the Winton's oil-powered side lanterns were "useless to illuminate the road." The front of the car also proved a convenient spot to attach a spare tire. Source: Smithsonian.

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        The Vermont's Controls | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Many of the Vermont's controls were located under the driver's seat. These included a switch for alternating between the car's two sets of ignition batteries, the air line throttle, and the main power switch. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Set Governor | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        This dial on the body of the car next to the driver's seat is called the "set governor," which controlled the motor's idle speed. The rubber bulb above it operated the car's horn. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Engine | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        The Vermont's two-cylindar, 20-horsepower engine is located directly under the driver's seat. It turned the axle via a chain drive. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Governor Button | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        On the floorboard under the steering wheel, the "governor button" on the right is equivalent to the accelerator in modern cars. The brake pedal was operated with the left foot. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Smithsonian Exhibit: Removing The Back Seat | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Sewall Crocker removed the Vermont's tonneau (back seat) to make room for equipment. Source: Smithsonian, National Museum of American History, "America on the Move."

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        Horatio Nelson Jackson | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Horatio Nelson Jackson drives the Vermont through sage. Source: University of Vermont, Special Collections.

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        Winton Advertisement, 1903 | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Advertisement from "The Literary Digest" magazine, featuring the Winton automobile. Photo credit: Marilyn Vogt.

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        Horatio's Trip Map | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Map showing Horatio Nelson Jackson and Sewall Crocker’s cross-country journey.

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        Clipping of "The World" Newspaper | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        On July 27, 1903, "The New York World" newspaper ran a headline that read: "Trans-Continent Autoists and Some Scenes in Their Trip of Six Thousand Miles." Source: The World.

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        Sewall Crocker | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Sewall Crocker on the cover of the July/August 1903 issue of "The Auto Era," a monthly journal published by the Winton Motor Carriage Company. Source: National Automotive History Collection, Detroit Public Library.

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        Newspaper Headline | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        "Crossing the Continent in Heavy Automobile," ran the headline from an unknown newspaper article.

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        Crocker Washes Off Motor Oil | Ken Burns: Horatio's Drive

        Sewall K. Crocker washes off motor oil in the Cascade Mountains of Northern California.

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