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In this video from The Human Spark Alan Alda and Oxford University's Robin Dunbar discuss intentionality. As Dunbar explains, intentionality is the ability to understand or believe things about the world. Almost all species of birds and mammals have first-order intentionality - that is, knowing what's in their own minds. Second-order intentionality - thinking about what others are thinking - is something apes can manage reasonably well but only humans are capable of third-order intentionality and higher.
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