This sketch by the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Spanish painter, Francisco Goya shows French troops pointing their rifles at Spanish men. The sketch is from a series of sketches and paintings Goya called The Disasters of War. The war he was referring to was the war caused by the French invasion of Spain in 1808. The French ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte, decided to put his own brother on the throne in France. He was successful in this attempt in the short term. But, in the long term, this invasion of Spain had two important side effects. First, it unified Spain against France and helped to modernize the country politically. Second, since Spain was occupied with fighting France, the colonies in the Americas were given the space to pursue their own interests. These interests gradually turned into an interest in independence.