Modernization is an important issue in the New York State Global History and Geography curriculum. Students are expected to understand how modernization may impact such areas as society, politics, the economy, and the environment. In the Global History and Geography curriculum, a study of historical examples of modernization includes examples of attempts to transform society, such as the Meiji Restoration or Kemal Ataturk. In this lesson, two PBS Wide Angle documentaries—"To Have and Have Not" (2002) and "1-800-INDIA" (2005)—will enable students to examine the effects of modernization on two Asian countries: China and India.
Today, China and India are under the microscope more than ever. China is set to play host to the 2008 Beijing Olympics and is now a member of the WTO (World Trade Organization). While the People's Republic of China is still very much a Communist country, it has transitioned to a market economy. Meanwhile, foreign investments by multinational companies to India's technology sector have had rippling effects. The drive for increased technology, communication, and commerce has created a push for modernization that seems unstoppable. The availability of a cheap labor pool has added to the lists of construction workers, factory workers, miners, etc. In India's case, a highly educated, English-speaking labor pool fills the ranks of a growing—$5 billion dollars a year—BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) industry.
Through this lesson, student will identify and evaluate the challenges and transformations brought on by modernization.
- Define the term modernization;
- Determine the impact of modernization on one's own daily life;
- Identify the extent to which modernization has transformed Chinese and Indian societies;
- Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages for societies, groups, and individuals of a transformation to a globalized market economy.
Three 55-minute class periods (excluding homework time for the Culminating Activity)
- New Worker Class QuickTime Video
- Migrant Workers QuickTime Video
- Transformed Workplaces QuickTime Video
- Shopping Culture QuickTime Video
- Night Transport QuickTime Video
For the class:
- Computer monitor or computer connection to television/projector for segment viewing
- Chalkboard, Whiteboard
- World (political) map or globe
- Sentence strips for "Word Wall" (new vocabulary words/terms, as needed)
For each pair of students:
- Computer with Internet access
For each student:
- Pen/pencil and writing journal/notebook
- Student Organizer #1: "The Invisible People" handout (see Support Materials)
- Student Organizer #2: "Trading Place" handout (see Support Materials)
- Business Week, "The Great Migration" (int'l edition)
This article discusses the reasons migrants have for leaving their homes for the cities. Personal stories add to an understanding of perspective.
- BBC News, "China's Rural Millions Left Behind"
This article discusses how new migrants from the countryside are treated unfairly as members of an underclass. Migrants suffer countless indignities in the cities. They also run the risk of losing their land back home as the government makes deals for development with foreign companies and imposes stricter guidelines and taxes on rural Chinese.
- Newsweek, "This is Really Home"
This article discusses the working conditions of illegal migrants and the violations of human rights in cities. The Chinese government claims migrants are a major problem.
- UNICEF, "Migrant Children Beset by Growing Pain"
This website shares the stories of migrant children and their anguish when separated from their parents, who have had to leave for cities in search of work. Families may be separated for long periods of time.
- The Earth Institute South Asia Program
This site offers a short background on the economic growth and development of industries in India, especially in the technology sector.
- Asia Source Interview from Asia Society
Isher Ahluwalia is currently the Vice Chairperson of the Planning Board of the Government of Punjab and a member of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council for the Government of India. In her interview, she discusses India's economic development in the coming years.
Before The Lesson
Bookmark the Web sites used in the lesson on each computer in your classroom, or upload all links to an online bookmarking utility such as www.portaportal.com.
Preview all of the video segments and Web sites used in the lesson to make certain that they are appropriate for your students, currently available, and accessible from your classroom.
Download the video segments used in this lesson onto your hard drive, or prepare to stream the segments from your classroom. RealPlayer is needed to view the video segments. If your classroom computer does not have it, download RealPlayer for free at www.real.com.
Refresh your knowledge of the key topics of modernization, fair trade, and globalization. A few websites to consult include Global Exchange (providing background information on the WTO and its impact on society); and the World Trade Organization site itself, with detailed information of the benefits of membership, and the organization's purpose, structure, organization, and agreements.
Prepare a list of five to ten key vocabulary words/terms that students will encounter as they view the sites and segments. It may be in the form of a handout with definitions included. Create a "Word Wall" in your classroom as you add new words/terms.
Organize the order of all handouts and photocopy one for each student.
When using media, provide students with a focus for media interaction, a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites, or other multimedia elements.
Part I: Introductory Activity
The following activities will help students to identify the new patterns and challenges of modernization in the 21st century. Students will understand the concept of the global village and how technology has fueled trade and economic growth today. Students will define the term modernization.
- Provide a "hook" to start a brief discussion. On the blackboard/whiteboard write the two statements below:
- Computers, cell phones, and other technology make life easier and foster communication worldwide.
- Computers, cell phones, and other technology make for a more demanding lifestyle and for fewer human interactions.
Ask students which statement they agree with more and why. (Students answers may vary based on their opinions: technology such as cell phones and the Internet allow for easier, faster communication; you can shop, download music, play games, travel more quickly, etc.) Ask students what types of technology they rely upon and enjoy using. (Some students may answer how they use text messaging and cell phones to keep up with friends and family; use the Internet to find information for school work or other uses easily and quickly, or to download music, play video games, and watch movies) Ask how today's technologies have changed their daily lives. (Some students may discuss the types of technology they use every day (i.e. cell phones, computer, the Internet, text messaging, IPod, flat screen TVs, etc.) Ask students where many of these products that they purchase come from today. (China, Japan, India, etc.)
- Ask students to create a working definition for modernization. They should think about what it means for them to live in a modern world (Students may suggest modernization has to do with advanced technology and innovation; the growth of cities; development of new industries; increased commerce and communication with others worldwide; rapid cultural or societal changes; new concepts, or ideas). Come up with a definition as a class and write it on the board. Ask students to think about how modernization might affect the movement of people. (People move to cities for job opportunities; or move due to the pressures of population growth, the need for more adequate housing, need for more schools and other services, etc.)
- Inform students that technological advances have created a more global society -- a global village -- interconnected through commerce and trade. Governments decide how best to meet the needs and wants of their nation -- sometimes this may involve strict controls over commerce and trade, while other times nations may allow for a free enterprise system. Business transactions can be done quickly via computer technology and items can be delivered around the world in short amounts of time. In industries involving manufacturing, the movement of goods and services has risen tremendously.
- Ask students to check the label of the shirt they are currently wearing (where was the product made?) Students may ask a fellow student for help. (Students may answer Taiwan, Vietnam, China, the Dominican Republic, India, Mexico, etc.) Ask students why this clothing may have been manufactured in another country? How did it get to the store were they bought the shirt? How much did they pay for the shirt? How much do you think the person who sewed it was paid? (Students answers may vary; basically students may identify how many of the clothing items -- and even other products they use -- are made in other parts of the world; they may say how these products are made in other areas, because workers in those countries will be paid less than worker in the United States; manufacturing companies cut costs by moving production overseas or across the border)
- Ask the students if they think modernization might bring new opportunities for some and not for others. Then have the students brainstorm ideas in response to the following questions, writing their ideas in their notebooks or journals:
- What problems/issues may come up because of modernization?
- What responsibility do wealthy citizens have to the poor in their own countries?
Part II: Learning Activity #1
- Explain that to understand the changes that modernization brings, the students will be examining primary and secondary sources from several different countries.
- Provide students with a brief introduction to China: have students locate China on the classroom/lab map or globe, and discuss why China has adopted capitalistic economic practices and is now willing to engage in joint ventures with American and other foreign corporations. Students will probably need to be reminded of the economic history of Communist China from 1949 and after the death of Mao in 1976. Inform students that China has now joined the WTO (World Trade Organization). Provide a brief introduction on the WTO.
- Provide your students with a focus for media interaction, asking them to identify the name of the worker type that describes Dwanzhi She. How would they describe this type of worker? Play the New Worker Class QuickTime Video for the class. Review the focus question with the students. (Dwanzhi She is a "gold collar" worker; he makes nearly $60,000 a year; he is a manager of a foreign-owned company and has enough money for a new apartment in an upscale area of Beijing.) Replay segment 1 to check for comprehension, if necessary. Ask students what opportunities and advantages Dwanzhi She seems to have in Beijing (He works for company that does business with foreign companies. He is highly educated; he speaks English; he just bought a larger, more modern apartment for his family).
- Tell students that Dwanzhi She's viewpoint is just one side of the story of life in Beijing. He considers himself quite the success story in the new China. He will get his MTV and HBO! Yet, for most people in China the story is very different. China has a population of 1.3 billion people, and of these an estimated 900 million are peasant farmers. Tell them that a new migration is taking place in China -- the greatest migration in modern history. Ask students in pairs to log on to Business Week, "The Great Migration" (int'l edition). Here, students will be asked to read the document and find out about this major shift in China's rural population. Provide students with a focus for media interaction: in their notebooks or journals, have them:
- Identify five facts about China's migration;
- Explain why this migration is happening now;
- List possible problems the migration might create.
Part III: Learning Activity #2
- Explain that while rural people in China have viable reasons for moving to modern cities, in most cases the Chinese government considers it to be illegal to move from the countryside to the city. In China, people must be registered in their province of birth. This is called hukou and involves a registration of residency. It is extremely difficult to get permission to move and register in another area. Thus, migrants who move to cities in search of work do so illegally.
- Tell students that we will now look at this other side of life in Beijing. Provide your students for a focus for media interaction, asking students to identify what type of job(s) they see these workers doing and what life is like for these people. Ask them to jot down the evidence of what they see in their notebook/journal. Play the Migrant Workers and Social Justice QuickTime Video for the class. Ask students to "turn and talk" with a partner about what they saw and their thoughts on the lives of migrants. Then ask a few students to report back on what they discussed with their "turn and talk" partner. (Students saw construction jobs and a husband and wife working and living in a construction site in conditions of poverty. The couple is separated from their child and miss him/her and their village). Ask students to compare this view on life in Beijing to the life Dwanzhi She is leading in the same city. (Dwanzhi She is wealthy, part of an upper class, and benefiting from China's new trade policies, while migrant workers earn very little and do jobs that seem to endanger their health.)
- Tell students that illegal migrants are found all over major cities of China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Guangzhou. Explain that the students will be investigating the lives of migrants who move to these modern cities. Students will complete Student Organizer #1: "The Invisible People" for the segments they have just seen from "To Have and Have Not." Distribute the Student Organizer #1: "The Invisible People" handout to the class. Provide students with a focus for media interaction by asking them to log on to these Web sites and answer the questions posed on their organizer:
- BBC News, "China's Rural Millions Left Behind"
- Newsweek, "This is Really Home
- Unicef: "Migrant children beset by growing pain"
(End of Day One of the lesson)
Part IV: Learning Activity #3
- Remind students what they have learned thus far about modernization: it may come in different forms and bring different advantages and disadvantages to different people. Tell them that migration is also an issue in India, as many people move to the cities in search of economic opportunities. Have students locate India on the classroom/lab map or globe.
- Provide students with some background: explain what BPO stands for (Business Process Outsourcing); and explain that the economic transformation India has been experiencing in the last five-ten years due to the growth of outsourcing industries has been quite noticeable. Include the fact that many foreign-based companies are interested in the services that the Indian workforce has to offer in the area of business and technology.
- Ask students to log on to the following two Web sites:
- The Earth Institute South Asia Program
- Asia Source Ahluwalia Interview from the Asia Society, at
- Provide students with a focus for media interaction, asking them read the two texts and to identify evidence that India is growing economically and will continue to do so. Review student answers as a class.
Part V: Learning Activity #4
- Tell students that they will be seeing segments on the changes the BPO industry has brought forth on India. Give the Student Organizer #2: "Trading Place" handout to the class. Provide students with a focus for media interaction, asking them to identify positive and negative effects in the lives of Renuka, Santosh, Ekta, and Satish Sehrawat. (Note: Tell students that they may see evidence of positive or negative effects and changes, or both positive and negative effects for any given person.) Play the Transformed Workplaces QuickTime Video for the class. Check for comprehension. (Renuka, a former doctor, is now a leader in the mortgage sector of GECIS. She makes more money here than as a doctor; she has developed more confidence as a speaker and leads a team of people; she helps other team members. Santosh, who works with Renuka, is learning new skills, learning English, and developing more confidence.)
- Play the Shopping Culture QuickTime Video for the class. Check for comprehension. (In this segment there is evidence of new jobs being created in security, construction, and real estate, shopping malls, and restaurants. Ekta -- a manager at a BPO -- is a part of this growing independent class. She has more disposable income and is shown shopping; she talks about her feelings of independence and being able to choose how and where to spend her own money that she earned.)
- Play the Night Transport QuickTime Video for the class. (Here women are shown needing to work during late-night shifts. The need for safe and reliable transportation for workers, especially women, had to be arranged. One man, Satish Sehrawat is a success story. Satish started off with one car and he built a car service for the BPO. Satish talks about his fleet of cars and his large staff).
Allow for 30-35 minutes for this activity (including discussion time at the end). Replay each segment to check for comprehension, as needed.
Part VI: Learning Activity #5
Have an informal debate on the issue of modernization:
- How do the transformations of modernization (including becoming more involved in the global economy) benefit societies, groups, or individuals?
- How do the transformations of modernization (including becoming more involved in the global economy) create negative repercussions for societies, groups, or individuals?
Refer to the evidence that has been viewed and read throughout this lesson based on China and India. Allow for 25 minutes (or more) for this activity.
Part VII: Culminating Activity
Ask the students to write a well-organized essay that addresses the theme of modernization. Include an introduction with a thesis statement, several paragraphs, and a conclusion. The essay may be assigned as homework. It should address the following:
- Define modernization and discuss to what degree it affects societies, groups, and individuals.
- Based on your study of China and India, provide a specific historical example of the influence of modernization on the development of each nation.
- Describe the positive and negative effects of modernization on people living in each nation.
- Read the article "A New India" by India's prime minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, who offers his point of view on India's new global era. This article, available at http://www.ibef.org/artdisplay.aspx?cat_id=84&art_id=6160, first appeared in The Wall Street Journal on May 19, 2005. Write an editorial to The Wall Street Journal as a response.
- Research the health problems experienced by migrant workers and write a report for your school paper. Check out China Labour's Web site, at http://www.clb.org.hk, as a start on the issue. Find out about how migrants may be subject to working conditions that affect their health and general well being. Investigate the effects of pesticides and other toxic materials on workers.
- Investigate the issue of labor rights in China and the violation of human rights. The Web site China Labour Bulletin, at http://www.clb.org.hk, was founded in Hong Kong in 1994 by independent trade unionist Han Dongfang (who is featured and interviewed in "To Have and Have Not"). Han Dongfang also has a radio program (from Hong Kong) on Radio Free Asia that works to expose human rights violations committed against all types of workers in Mainland China. This Web site offers links to background information on labor rights, working conditions, imprisoned workers, and health and safety issues in China today. Research what rights are guaranteed through the Chinese constitution and what rights are not being respected (especially for workers). Write a letter to your local congressman about the need for protection of workers in China, as the United States does more business there. Research companies like Wal-Mart, McDonald's, and Citibank, and other companies currently doing business in China. Write a report on the pros and cons of modernization as the world becomes more global.
- Have the students write a thematic essay that addresses the theme of industrialization. Assign the following:
- Since the 19th century, industrialization has had positive and negative effects on the lives of people.
- Define the term industrialization.
- Select one nation you have studied and discuss two specific examples of the ways in which industrialization changed the lives of workers in that nation.
- Discuss the response of the workers, reformers, and/or government to these changes.
You may use any nation from your study of global history, except the United States.
Invite a labor activist to speak to the class.
Get in touch with group working with migrant workers. Invite the group to participate in a teach-in on human rights at your school.
Take a trip to Ellis Island (or another immigrant center/museum in your community) and find out more about early migrants.