Tens of millions of people worldwide are classified as “internally displaced,” meaning that they are living in their native countries but have been forced to relocate from their homes due to violence, conflict, or violations of their human rights. In this lesson, students use video segments from the PBS series Women, War & Peace as well as information from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre and the United Nations to learn more about internally displaced populations existing in nations and territories today, the types of threats and discrimination they face, and what can be done to help their situations.
Students will be able to:
- Define “internally displaced person” and describe internal displacement situations worldwide;
- Explain the discrimination, threats, and internal displacement concerns facing the Afro-Colombian population;
- Analyze and utilize documents to present an overview of internally displaced populations in specific countries and territories;
- Demonstrate an understanding of “durable solutions” for internally displaced persons.
(3-4) 45-minute class periods
For each pair or group of 3-4 students:
For each student:
For additional information on internally displaced persons, humanitarian aide efforts to internally displaced populations, and human rights, students may wish to visit the following websites:
Before The Lesson
If desired, make enough copies of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement for each student.
Make enough copies of the IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons Quick Reference Guide for each student. Print only pages 3 and 4 of the PDF (pages iii and iv of the document).
For the Culminating Activity, you may wish to provide the following links to students to help them find the appropriate personnel to direct their letters:
- U.S. Department of State: A-Z List of Country and Other Area Pages
- U.S. Department of State: Web Sites of Foreign Embassies in the U.S.
- UNHCR: Contact Us (see Field Office drop-down menu at the bottom of the page)
Part I: Introductory Activity
Begin class by asking students if they are familiar with the term “refugee.” If so, ask them to provide a definition, and write it on the board.(Their definition of the term may include that a refugee is someone that is oppressed, persecuted, or threatened, and has fled from his or her home.The key part of the definition is that a refugee no longer lives in his or her home country.) Tell students that the United Nations Refugee Agency classifies a refugee as a person who, because of “a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside of the country of his nationality and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.”
Ask students if they are familiar with the term “internally displaced person.” If so, ask them to provide a definition and write it on the board. (Similar to the definition of refugee, but without fleeing their home country.) Once they have come up with their definition, or if they are unfamiliar with the term, tell students that internally displaced persons, or IDPs, are often wrongly referred to as refugees, but the key difference is that IDPs have not crossed an international border in search of sanctuary or protection. While IDPs often flee their homes for the same reason as refugees, since they remain in their home country they remain under the protection of their home government – even if that government has been the cause of their troubles. Ask students why they think people would choose to remain in their home countries rather than leave, attaining refugee status and reaping potential benefits and aid?
Ask students if they can think of any internally displaced populations in American or world history. (Native Americans, Japanese-Americans in the US or Jews in Europe in World War II, New Orleans residents after Hurricane Katrina.) Ask students what they think are some of the causes of internal displacement. (Accept all answers.) Tell students that in the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the United Nation’s internal standards document regarding IDPs, considers legitimate causes of internal displacement to be: armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, and natural or man-made violence. These are broad categories, and may include any specific causes mentioned by students, including ethnic cleansing, civil war, hurricanes, economic development, etc.
Write the following questions on the board, or project them on a screen for the class, and give students five minutes to write down their thoughts and responses to the questions.
Can internal displacement of persons ever have a justified cause?
Are internally displaced people a burden on their government or country?
Should women and men be treated differently in situations of internal displacement?
Should internally displaced persons expect the same comfort and treatments as they would get in their homes?
Have students log on to the website for the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, or make copies and distribute one to each student. (For class purposes, use the English version of the text, as it is the original and authoritative edition; however if students speak English as a secondary language and would prefer to read the document in their primary language in order to gain a better understanding of the text, they are encouraged to do so on their own.) Ask students to go to page 2 of the document starting with Section 1:General Principles. Go around the room, asking each student to read one section, paragraph, or principle aloud. Encourage students to pause for reflection or discussion if they so desire, or have questions. Stop at the end of Principle 9, “States are under a particular obligation to protect against the displacement of indigenous peoples, minorities, peasants, minorities, peasants, pastoralists and other groups with a special dependency on and attachment to their lands." Have students look at the questions on the board again and think about their answers. Do they agree with their original answers after reading some of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement? What, if anything, would they change? Why? Discuss.
Part II: Learning Activity 1
- Tell students that there are millions of internally displaced persons worldwide, but the country with the largest number of IDPs is Colombia. The most current figures, as stated in the 2010 Global Overview of Trends and Development issued by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, estimate that between 8 and 11.6% of Colombia’s population (3.6 – 5.2 million people) is displaced. This is due to several of the causes discussed in the Introductory Activity, notably armed conflict and human rights violations. Tell students that you are going to show them a short video segment from the PBS series Women,War and Peace introducing them to the current displacement situation in Colombia, and some of the notable community activists involved. Ask students, as they watch the video, to pay special attention to who is being displaced, and why? Play Cauca's Most Valuable Resources. When Cauca's Most Valuable Resources has finished, review the following questions with the class:
- Where is Cauca? (Colombia’s Pacific Southwest coast)
- Why is it perceived as important/valuable? (because of its biodiversity and richness in natural resources, especially gold)
- What ethnic/racial group primarily populates this region? (Afro-Colombians)
- Why are Afro-Colombians being driven from their land? (“Multinationals” and military groups want access to the region and its resources, the government is not defending the Afro-Colombians’ property rights)
- What role do women play in the community? (Women appear to be equal to men in terms of power in the community, they organize and lead, they are the heads of families, and participate and lead in community councils.)
Part III: Learning Activity 2
- While Colombia is the state with the most internally displaced persons, it is by no means the only country suffering this problem. As of December 2010 there were approximately 27.5 million people displaced by conflict worldwide. The region most affected by displacement is Africa, and five countries in the world are home to over one million identified IDPs. According to the Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, members of minority groups (such as Afro-Colombians) are often at a greater risk of being displaced, and frequently experience additional discrimination during their displacement. The impact of displacement on populations with a strong attachment to or dependency on their land, such as indigenous or pastoralist groups is “disproportionately severe.” IDPs also routinely experience violations of their physical security, including sexual and gender-based violence, abduction, forced relocation, and arbitrary arrest. In urban areas, women and children are especially at risk, as children are recruited into gangs or armed military groups, and women are pressured to engage in “undesirable economic activities.”
- Tell students that you would like them to research and find more information on other nations in addition to Colombia where minority or indigenous populations are the target of internal displacement and subsequent discrimination and/or harassment. Divide class into pairs or small groups, depending on class size, making sure that each pair or group has access to a computer. Give each group a piece of chart paper and markers. Assign each pair/group a country or territory from the Internally Displaced Populations handout and have them use the link provided to visit that country’s page on the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center’s website. (Do not assign a country/territory to more than one group.) Students should try to gain as much information as they can about the internally displaced populationin their assigned country or territory, looking at the “At A Glance” page, any IDP News Alerts on the page, statistics, and maps, taking care to note any data or information specifically pertaining to women, minority racial or ethnic groups, indigenous populations, and lower-class or poverty-stricken citizens. Pairs/groups should use the markers and chart paper to create a summary (using text, graphics or a combination) of their assigned country or territory’s current displacement situation.
- When students have completed their summary pages, have the pairs/groups deliver brief (five minutes or less) presentations on their country or territory. As they present, students should consider any violations of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement that are potentially being committed by that country or territory. Encourage class discussion.
- Ask students what, if anything, they learned about the treatment of internally displaced persons while conducting their research on the IDMC website. Are there instances of marked discrimination against IDPs? Do female IDPs experience more discrimination or face more threats than male IDPs? Why do they think that is? How are internally displaced persons treated by other IDPs? How are they treated by non-displaced citizens in their home countries? How are they treated by their home governments? Is this treatment in line with the Guiding Principles? Why or why not? Discuss as a class.
Part IV: Culminating Activity
- Remind students that although the primary responsibility for IDPs sits with their home governments, many other nations’ governments, international governing agencies,and NGOs are starting to intervene as displacement situations worldwide become more severe. What, if anything, did students find in their research regarding international or humanitarian aid to nations or territories with large internally displaced populations?
- Explain that, ideally, the goal for all of these organizations – local governments, international governments, international governing agencies, and NGOs – is to find “durable solutions” for internally displaced persons. Distribute copies of the IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons Quick Reference Guide to each student. Give students 5 – 10 minutes to read through the Quick Reference Guide. Once students have read through the Guide, ask them to brainstorm ideas, based on their research, knowledge, and pages hanging in the classroom, of how durable solutions may be reached for the nations/territories presented in the class. Encourage students to think of solutions that may be of particular economic and/or social benefit to women, who tend to suffer in those areas in situations of internal displacement. This may be done in pairs, groups, or as a class. Discuss the ideas as a class.
- As an in-class or homework assignment, have students select one of the countries or territories discussed in class, and write a letter to that country/territory’s U.S. Department of State Ambassador, their embassy in the U.S., or their UNHCR Field Office. Students’ letters should express their opinions on the displacement situation in their selected country or territory, and their thoughts on durable solutions for internally displaced persons, once again placing a particular emphasis on durable solutions for internally displaced women. Students are not required to send their letters as part of the assignment, but are welcome to do so if they choose.