Gerard, Francois Pascal Simon, Baron (1770-1837); French. Medium: pen and ink on paper. Date: 1801. Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) handing the pen to his brother Napoleon (1769-1821); convention of the 26th Messidor, Year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France; balance of power between church and state; Provenance: Ch�teau de Versailles, France / Giraudon. Photographic Rights The Bridgeman Art Library.