French School, (12th century); French. Medium: vellum. Date: 1150's. According to legend in 708 Aubert, Bishop of Avranches had three visions in which the Archangel Michael instructed him to build an oratory on the rocky tidal island at the mouth of the Couesnon, later to become the Monastery of Mont Saint-Michel; this image shows the third vision in which the archangel, exasperated at Aubert's slowness to heed his commands, about to put his finger into his skull; a cartulary is a collection of charters recording grants to religious institutions and the Cartulaire de Mont Saint-Michel, now in the Bibliotheque Municipale in Avranches, is the only surviving medieval source for the monastery after the destruction of the Archives of the Manche in 1944; considered to have been made for Robert de Torigni (also known as Robert de Monte) Abbot of Mont Saint-Michel (1154-86) or perhaps for his predecessor, Abbot Geoffrey; Provenance: Bibliotheque Municipale, Avranches, France / Giraudon. Photographic Rights The Bridgeman Art Library.