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        Fernando Alvarez de Toledo

        Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (1780-1867); French. Medium: oil on canvas. Date: 1815. Le duc d'Albe a Sainte-Gudule; commissioned by 14th duke to commemorate 3rd duke the 'Butcher of Flanders' who suppressed Protestant heresy in the Netherlands as governor general from 1567-73 condemning some 12,000 rebels to death; red-dominated picture to symbolise a bloodbath; Provenance: Musee Ingres, Montauban, France / Giraudon. Photographic Rights The Bridgeman Art Library.

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